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WHAT IS MMA?

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows a wide variety of fighting techniques and skills from a mixture of other combat sports to be used in competition. The rules allow usage of both striking and grappling techniques while standing and on the ground. Competitions allow athletes of different backgrounds to compete.

FIGHT STYLES

Boxing: The skill of fighting with the fists, usually with padded leather gloves. Referred to as the “sweet science,” boxers use elaborate foot maneuvers and quick jabs for offense.

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: In the mid-1920s, Carlos Gracie opened the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu Academy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He taught the skills he learned from Japanese judo master Esai Maeda. The skills were later modified to use less strength and to be more effective against larger opponents. Brazilian jiu-jitsu’s reputation spread because of the success of its practitioners in no-holds-barred contests.

Jiu-Jitsu: Ancient Japanese martial art that encompasses throwing, joint locks, striking and weapons training.

Judo: Sportive Japanese martial art founded in 1882 by Jigoro Kano and derived from Jujutsu. Judo is now an Olympic sport emphasizing throws. Striking is prohibited.

Karate: Name used to identify many Japanese and Okinawan martial arts. While known for powerful, linear techniques, many karate styles also incorporate softer, circular techniques. Some of the popular styles of karate are Kyokushinkai, Shotokan, Goju-Ryu, Shorin-Ryu and Kenpo—which is the first “Americanized” version of karate.

Kickboxing: Sportive martial art combining boxing punches and martial arts kicks. Many different styles with different rules exist such as Muay Thai, full-contact karate and Asian Rules Fighting.

Kung Fu: Also referred to as Gung Fu, Chinese Boxing and Wu Shu. There are hundreds of Kung Fu styles. Many are patterned after movements of animals. Some well-known styles of Kung Fu are Wing Chun, Praying Mantis, Pau Kua, Tai-Chi-Ch’uan and Shuai Chiao.

Freestyle & Greco-Roman Wrestling: Possibly the world’s oldest sport in which contestants struggle hand-to-hand, attempting to throw or take down their opponent without striking blows. Some wrestling styles include freestyle, Greco-Roman and catch-as-catch-can.

TaeKwonDo: One of the most practiced martial arts in the world, taekwondo is a Korean style known for its flashy kicking techniques.

WAYS TO WIN

Submission by: Physical or verbal tap out.

Knockout: Athlete is knocked unconscious due to strikes or impact.

Technical knockout: The referee stops the contest.

DECISION VIA SCORECARDS, INCLUDING

Unanimous: All judges pick the same athlete as the winner.

Split: One judge picks one athlete. The other two judges pick the other athlete.

Majority: Two judges pick the same athlete as the winner. The final judge says fight was a draw.

Draw: Unanimous, majority or split.

The first native New Yorkers were the Lenape, an Algonquin people who hunted, fished and farmed in the area between the Delaware and Hudson rivers. Europeans began to explore the region at the beginning of the 16th century–among the first was Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian who sailed up and down the Atlantic coast in search of a route to Asia–but none settled there until 1624. That year, the Dutch West India Company sent some 30 families to live and work in a tiny settlement on “Nutten Island” (today’s Governors Island) that they called New Amsterdam. In 1626, the settlement’s governor general, Peter Minuit, purchased the much larger Manhattan Island from the natives for 60 guilders in trade goods such as tools, farming equipment, cloth and wampum (shell beads). Fewer than 300 people lived in New Amsterdam when the settlement moved to Manhattan. But it grew quickly, and in 1760 the city (now called New York City; population 18,000) surpassed Boston to become the second-largest city in the American colonies. Fifty years later, with a population 202,589, it became the largest city in the Western hemisphere. Today, more than 8 million people live in the city’s five boroughs.

New York City in the 18th Century

In 1664, the British seized New Amsterdam from the Dutch and gave it a new name: New York City. For the next century, the population of New York City grew larger and more diverse: It included immigrants from the Netherlands, England, France and Germany; indentured servants; and African slaves.

During the 1760s and 1770s, the city was a center of anti-British activity–for instance, after the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765, New Yorkers closed their businesses in protest and burned the royal governor in effigy. However, the city was also strategically important, and the British tried to seize it almost as soon as the Revolutionary War began. In August 1776, despite the best efforts of George Washington’s Continental Army in Brooklyn and Harlem Heights, New York City fell to the British. It served as a British military base until 1783.

New York City in the 19th Century

The city recovered quickly from the war, and by 1810 it was one of the nation’s most important ports. It played a particularly significant role in the cotton economy: Southern planters sent their crop to the East River docks, where it was shipped to the mills of Manchester and other English industrial cities. Then, textile manufacturers shipped their finished goods back to New York.

But there was no easy way to carry goods back and forth from the growing agricultural hinterlands to the north and west until 1817, when work began on a 363-mile canal from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The Erie Canal was completed in 1825. At last, New York City was the trading capital of the nation.

As the city grew, it made other infrastructural improvements. In 1811, the “Commissioner’s Plan” established an orderly grid of streets and avenues for the undeveloped parts of Manhattan north of Houston Street. In 1837, construction began on the Croton Aqueduct, which provided clean water for the city’s growing population. Eight years after that, the city established its first municipal agency: the New York City Police Department.

Meanwhile, increasing number of immigrants, first from Germany and Ireland during the 1840s and 50s and then from Southern and Eastern Europe, changed the face of the city. They settled in distinct ethnic neighborhoods, started businesses, joined trade unions and political organizations and built churches and social clubs. For example, the predominantly Irish-American Democratic club known as Tammany Hall became the city’s most powerful political machine by trading favors such as jobs, services and other kinds of aid for votes.

New York City in the 20th Century

At the turn of the 20th century, New York City became the city we know today. In 1895, residents of Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island and Brooklyn–all independent cities at that time–voted to “consolidate” with Manhattan to form a five-borough “Greater New York.” As a result, on December 31, 1897, New York City had an area of 60 square miles and a population of a little more than 2 million people; on January 1, 1898, when the consolidation plan took effect, New York City had an area of 360 square miles and a population of about 3,350,000 people.

The 20th century was an era of great struggle for American cities, and New York was no exception. The construction of interstate highways and suburbs after World War II encouraged affluent people to leave the city, which combined with deindustrialization and other economic changes to lower the tax base and diminish public services. This, in turn, led to more out-migration and “white flight.” However, the Hart-Cellar Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 made it possible for immigrants from Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America to come to the United States. Many of these newcomers settled in New York City, revitalizing many neighborhoods.

New York City in the New Millennium

On September 11, 2001, New York City suffered the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States when a group of terrorists crashed two hijacked jets into the city’s tallest buildings: the twin towers of the World Trade Center. The buildings were destroyed and nearly 3,000 people were killed. In the wake of the disaster, the city remained a major financial capital and tourist magnet, with over 40 million tourists visiting the city each year.

Today, more than 8 million New Yorkers live in the five boroughs–more than one-third of whom were born outside the United States. Thanks to the city’s diversity and vibrant intellectual life, it remains the cultural capital of the United States.

Day 1: Legs

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Barbell Walking Lunge – 4 sets x25 reps
  • Leg Press – 4 sets x 25 reps
  • Leg Extensions – 3 sets x 20 reps
  • Barbell Squats – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Hack Squats – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Romanian Deadlift – 4 sets x 10 reps
  • Seated Leg Curls – 3 sets x 20 reps
  • Thigh Abductor – 4 set x 12 reps

Day 2: Back

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Wide-Grip Lat Pulldown – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Bent Over Barbell Row – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • One Arm Dumbbell Row – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Barbell Deadlift – 3 sets x 10 reps
  • Pull-Ups – 3 sets
  • Dumbbell Shrug – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Inverted Row – 3 sets
  • Hyperextension – 4 sets x 12 reps

Day 3: Shoulders

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Dumbbell Shoulder Press – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Standing Military Press – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Front Dumbbell Raise – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Side Lateral Raise – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Reverse Machine Flyes – 4 sets x 15 reps
  • Seated Bent Over Rear Delt Raise – 4 sets x 12 reps

Day 4: Arms/Abs

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Dumbbell Bicep Curl – 4 sets x 15 reps
  • Hammer Curls – 4 sets x 15 reps
  • Spider Curl – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Triceps Pushdown – 4 sets x 15 reps
  • Overhead Triceps – 3 sets x 15 reps
  • Hanging Leg Raise – 4 sets x 20 reps
  • Rope Crunch – 4 sets x 20 reps
  • Russian Twist – 4 sets x 20 reps

Day 5: Legs

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Barbell Walking Lunge – 4 sets x 25 reps
  • Leg Press – 4 sets x 25 reps
  • Leg Extension – 3 sets x 20 reps
  • Barbell Squat – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Hack Squat – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Romanian Deadlift – 4 sets x 10 reps
  • Seated Leg Curl – 3 sets x 20 reps
  • Thigh Abductor – 4 sets x 12 reps

Day 6: Chest

  • Running 30-50 minutes – outside or on a treadmill
  • Barbell Bench Press, medium grip – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Incline Dumbbell Press – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Dumbbell Bench Press – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Flat Bench Cable Flyes – 4 sets x 15 reps
  • Incline Hammer Curls – 4 sets x 12 reps
  • Dips, Chest Version – 4 sets x 10-12 reps

Day 7: Rest

The Rock’s rest day is usually comprised of refueling his muscles with epic cheat meals on worthy of the Herculean force he is.

So, if you dare, you can try training as hard as the Rock by following these workouts to a T, or you can adapt the days to where you are right now. The important takeaway from this routine is that you need to push hard and stay determined to get results.

As the Rock has said: “Success at anything will always come down to this: Focus and Effort. And we control both.”

The Rock eats meals every 2 to 3 hours, about 5 to 7 times a day.

Here’s a sample of what the Rock cooks up throughout the week:

  • Meal 1 – 280-gram steak filet, 4 egg whites, 140-gram oatmeal, 1 glass of watermelon juice
  • Meal 2 – 220-gram chicken, 2 cups white rice, 1 cup broccoli or a mixture of bell pepper, mushrooms, broccoli, and a protein shake
  • Meal 3 – 220-gram halibut, 2 cups white rice, 1 cup asparagus
  • Meal 4 – 220-gram chicken, 1 cup broccoli, 350 gram baked potato
  • Meal 5 – 220-gram halibut, 1 cup white rice, 1 cup asparagus
  • Meal 6 – 280-gram steak filet, 250 gram backed potato, 1 salad
  • Meal 7 – 20-30 gram casein protein supplement, 10 egg whites

As Johnson has told Bodybuilding.com in a 2018 interview, “Diet-wise, I generally eat 5 meals a day. I’m very prepared and organized, and everything is planned out in advance. It’s all measured depending on what I’m training to achieve… [Staples] in my diet include chicken, steak fillets, egg whites, oatmeal, broccoli, halibut, rice, asparagus, baked potato, leafy salads, peppers, mushrooms, and onions, and then also some casein protein.”

Baseball is a sport that dates back as far as 1744 and formats of the game have been in place until the modern era today. The game is predominantly big in North America, Canada and Japan. The game is played worldwide with the pinnacle of sport coming from the World Series of Baseball. Ironically, this event is only competed by North American teams.

Object of the Game

The object of baseball is to score more runs than your opponent. The idea is to hit the ball thrown at you as far as you can before running around 4 bases to complete a run. Once a player manages to get around the four bases before being tagged out, then another batter steps in.

Players & Equipment

A game is played out between two teams, each made up of 9 players. The game lasts for 9 innings with each team alternating between batting and fielding in each inning. The scores at the end of the innings are added to a cumulative score and the team with most points wins. Each team has three outs per inning before they then swap roles. Each inning can be broken down into the top (where the away team bats), and the bottom (where the home team bats).

The field is split into two sections: infield and outfield. Separating the infield and outfield is a diamond shape with four bases, spaced at 90 feet apart each. In the center of the infield is the pitching mound where the pitcher stands and throws the ball toward the batter. The batter stands at the home plate. The other three bases are known as first base, second base and third base. The batter must touch all bases before successfully scoring a run.

The bats are made out of either wood, aluminium or metal materials. The ball is white with red stitching and is roughly 3 inches in diameter. The fielding team wear ‘mits’, which are basically an oversized glove to help them catch and pick up the ball. The catcher (standing behind the batter to catch any balls missed) wears extra padding in their glove, along with leg guards, a body pad, and a helmet.

Scoring

To score, a batter must hit the ball with the bat into the designated fielding area and make it around all four bases (before the fielding team is able to collect the ball and throw it to the base the batter is running to). A player can score a mandatory point if they hit a home run, which usually means the ball has left the playing area, often landing in the crowd. A player can stop at any base if they feel they might not make it to the next base before being tagged out.

Players can score multiple points from one hit if more than one player is already on one of the bases. When you hear the phrase ‘the bases are loaded’, this refers to the instance where there is a player on every base. So, every time a batter successfully makes it to first base, the other players on the second and third bases are able to trickle home, earning a point for their team each time. Depending on how many players get around to home plate before being tagged will depend on how many points you score. A maximum of four points can be scored on one hit.

Winning the Game

To win a game, you must outscore your opposition through the 9 innings played. The team with the most points after 9 innings is deemed the winner. In the event of a tie, extra innings are played until a winner has been concluded.

Rules of Baseball

  • Baseball has two teams of 9 players.
  • The fielding team’s positions are made up of a pitcher, catcher, first baseman, second baseman, shortstop, third baseman, and three outfielders at left field, centre field and right field.
  • Games last for 9 innings of which both teams get to bat once. If the game is a tie after 9 innings then an extra inning will be added until a winner is found. If the team batting second in the bottom of the 9th inning are already ahead in points, then they do not need to complete their batting innings.
  • Once a batting order is picked, then it cannot be changed throughout the game. Substitutes are permitted, however, they must bat in the order of the previous player whom they replaced.
  • If the batter manages to hit the ball from the pitcher, they must make an effort to at least get to first base. They can then run to as many bases as they wish before being tagged out. Each base must be touched with some part of the batters body when running past.
  • A batter gets up to three strikes before getting out. A strike is deemed when a batter swings for a ball and misses it. The batter can leave the ball but, if it’s within a certain area (called the ‘strike zone’), then a strike will also be given. If four balls miss the strike zone and the batter does not swing their bat, they can walk to first base.
  • When on base, the batter can run to the next base at any point.
  • Players can be dismissed by either a ‘strike out’ (referring to a batsman missing the ball three times), ‘force out’ (when a player fails to make the base before the defensive player), ‘fly out’ (when the ball is hit in the air and caught without it bouncing), and ‘tag outs’ (where a defensive player with the ball tags the batsman with the ball all whilst they are running).

American Football is one of the biggest North American sports. Whilst the game is played worldwide, the professional leagues in North America (such as the NFL) easily attract the best players in the world making its leagues the most competitive. The pinnacle of the sport comes in the form of the Super Bowl played out every year to millions of people around the world.

Object of the Game

The object of American football is to score more points than your opponents in the allotted time. To do this they must move the ball down the pitch in phases of play before eventually getting the ball into the ‘end zone’ for a touchdown. This can be achieved by either throwing the ball to a teammate or running with the ball.

Each team gets 4 chances (downs) to move the ball 10 yards forward. Once they pass the 10 yards their downs reset and they start again for another 10 yards. After 4 downs have passed and they have failed to make it over the 10 yards required the ball will be turned over to the defensive team.

Players & Equipment

Whilst there are only 11 players from each team on the field at any team, an American football team is actually made up of 45 players. The teams are generally split into three groups of attacking (generally smaller, stronger, faster type of players, including a quarterback who is said to run the attacking plays and throw the ball to their teammates), defence (larger, more powerful players designed to stop players from running) and special team players (responsible for the kicking and punting side of the game with a mixture of larger and faster players).

An American football field is generally around 100 yards long and 160 yards wide. Lines are drawn on the field at 10 yard interval to indicate how far each team has to go before reaching the end zone. The end zones are added at each end of the pitch and are roughly 20 yards in length each. Posts can also be found at each end of which the kicker kicks the ball over.

Scoring

When a player scores a touchdown six points are awarded to their team. A touchdown can be scored by either carrying the ball into the end zone or receiving the ball from a pass whilst in the end zone. After a touchdown has been scored the attacking team have opportunity to kick the ball for an extra point. The ball must pass between the upright posts for a successful kick.

A field goal can be scored from anywhere on the pitch at any time (usually on the final down) and a successful kick will result in three points. A safety is where the defensive team manages to tackle an attacking opponent in their own end zone; for this the team will receive 2 points.

Winning the Game

The team with the most points at the end of the game will be deemed the winner. If the points are tied then over time will come into play where the teams will play an additional quarter until a winner is found.

Rules of American Football

  • Games last for four 15 minute quarters. A 2 minute break between the 1st & 2nd and 3rd & 4th quarters is had along with a 15 minute rest between 2nd and 3rd quarters (half time).
  • Each team has 4 downs to gain 10 or more yards. They can either throw or run the ball to make the yards. As soon as the team gains the required yards then the downs reset and the yardage resets. Failure to make the yardage after 4 downs will result in a turnover.
  • There are hundreds of different plays that players can run on any down. Plays are made up by the teams and often have players running all over the place (routes) in what is essentially organised chaos. The head coach or quarter back calls the on field plays for the attacking team whilst the defensive captain calls the plays for the defensive team.
  • At the start of every game is the coin toss to decide which team receives the ball first and which side of the pitch they want to start from.
  • The game begins with a kick-off where one team punts the ball down field for the other team to then run back with the ball as far as possible.
  • On fourth down the offence has the option to either try to make up the yards they are short or to kick the ball. If they decide to kick they have two options; to punt or to try for a field goal. Depending on their position on the pitch will usually dictate their paly. Anything within 40 yards or so of the opposition’s goal posts will result in a field goal attempt. Further back will likely mean they take the punt option.

David Hume, (born May 7 [April 26, Old Style], 1711, Edinburgh, Scotland—died August 25, 1776, Edinburgh), Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism.

Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive, experimental science of human nature. Taking the scientific method of the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton as his model and building on the epistemology of the English philosopher John Locke, Hume tried to describe how the mind works in acquiring what is called knowledge. He concluded that no theory of reality is possible; there can be no knowledge of anything beyond experience. Despite the enduring impact of his theory of knowledge, Hume seems to have considered himself chiefly as a moralist.

Early life and works

Hume was the younger son of Joseph Hume, the modestly circumstanced laird, or lord, of Ninewells, a small estate adjoining the village of Chirnside, about nine miles distant from Berwick-upon-Tweed on the Scottish side of the border. David’s mother, Catherine, a daughter of Sir David Falconer, president of the Scottish court of session, was in Edinburgh when he was born. In his third year his father died. He entered Edinburgh University when he was about 12 years old and left it at 14 or 15, as was then usual. Pressed a little later to study law (in the family tradition on both sides), he found it distasteful and instead read voraciously in the wider sphere of letters. Because of the intensity and excitement of his intellectual discovery, he had a nervous breakdown in 1729, from which it took him a few years to recover.

In 1734, after trying his hand in a merchant’s office in Bristol, he came to the turning point of his life and retired to France for three years. Most of this time he spent at La Flèche on the Loire, in the old Anjou, studying and writing A Treatise of Human Nature. The Treatise was Hume’s attempt to formulate a full-fledged philosophical system. It is divided into three books: Book I, “Of the Understanding,” discusses, in order, the origin of ideas; the ideas of space and time; knowledge and probability, including the nature of causality; and the skeptical implications of those theories. Book II, “Of the Passions,” describes an elaborate psychological machinery to explain the affective, or emotional, order in humans and assigns a subordinate role to reason in this mechanism. Book III, on morals, characterizes moral goodness in terms of “feelings” of approval or disapproval that people have when they consider human behaviour in the light of agreeable or disagreeable consequences, either to themselves or to others.

Although the Treatise is Hume’s most thorough exposition of his thought, at the end of his life he vehemently repudiated it as juvenile, avowing that only his later writings presented his considered views. The Treatise is not well constructed, in parts oversubtle, confusing because of ambiguity in important terms (especially “reason”), and marred by willful extravagance of statement and rather theatrical personal avowals. For those reasons his mature condemnation of it was perhaps not entirely misplaced. Book I, nevertheless, has been more read among academic philosophers than any other of his writings.

Returning to England in 1737, he set about publishing the Treatise. Books I and II were published in two volumes in 1739; Book III appeared the following year. The poor reception of this, his first and very ambitious work, depressed him; he later said, in his Autobiography, that “it fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction, as even to excite a murmur among the zealots.” But his next venture, Essays, Moral and Political (1741–42), won some success. Perhaps encouraged by this, he became a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh in 1744. Objectors alleged heresy and even atheism, pointing to the Treatise as evidence (Hume’s Autobiography notwithstanding, the work had not gone unnoticed). Unsuccessful, Hume left the city, where he had been living since 1740, and began a period of wandering: a sorry year near St. Albans as tutor to the mad marquess of Annandale (1745–46); a few months as secretary to Gen. James St. Clair (a member of a prominent Scottish family), with whom he saw military action during an abortive expedition to Brittany (1746); a little tarrying in London and at Ninewells; and then some further months with General St. Clair on an embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin (1748–49).

Mature Works

During his years of wandering Hume was earning the money that he needed to gain leisure for his studies. Some fruits of those studies had already appeared before the end of his travels, viz., a further Three Essays, Moral and Political (1748) and Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding (1748). The latter is a rewriting of Book I of the Treatise (with the addition of his essay “On Miracles,” which became notorious for its denial that a miracle can be proved by any amount or kind of evidence); it is better known as An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, the title Hume gave to it in a revision of 1758. The Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751) was a rewriting of Book III of the Treatise. It was in those later works that Hume expressed his mature thought.

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is an attempt to define the principles of human knowledge. It poses in logical form significant questions about the nature of reasoning in regard to matters of fact and experience, and it answers them by recourse to the principle of association. The basis of Hume’s exposition is a twofold classification of objects of awareness. In the first place, all such objects are either “impressions,” data of sensation or of internal consciousness, or “ideas,” derived from such data by compounding, transposing, augmenting, or diminishing. That is to say, the mind does not create any ideas but derives them from impressions. From this Hume develops a theory of linguistic meaning. A word that does not stand directly for an impression has meaning only if it brings before the mind an object that can be gathered from an impression by one of the mental processes just mentioned. In the second place, there are two approaches to construing meaning: an analytical one, which concentrates on the “relations of ideas,” and an empirical one, which focuses on “matters of fact.” Ideas can be held before the mind simply as meanings, and their logical relations to one another can then be detected by rational inspection. The idea of a plane triangle, for example, entails the equality of its internal angles to two right angles, and the idea of motion entails the ideas of space and time, irrespective of whether there really are such things as triangles and motion. Only on that level of mere meanings, Hume asserts, is there room for demonstrative knowledge. Matters of fact, on the other hand, come before the mind merely as they are, revealing no logical relations; their properties and connections must be accepted as they are given. That primroses are yellow, that lead is heavy, and that fire burns things are facts, each shut up in itself, logically barren. Each, so far as reason is concerned, could be different: the contradictory of every matter of fact is conceivable. Therefore, there can be no logically demonstrative science of fact.

From this basis Hume develops his doctrine about causality. The idea of causality is alleged to assert a “necessary connexion” among matters of fact. From what impression, then, is it derived? Hume states that no causal relation among the data of the senses can be observed, for, when people regard any events as causally connected, all that they do and can observe is that they frequently and uniformly go together. In this sort of togetherness it is a fact that the impression or idea of the one event brings with it the idea of the other. A habitual association is set up in the mind; and, as in other forms of habit, so in this one, the working of the association is felt as compulsion. This feeling, Hume concludes, is the only discoverable impressional source of the idea of causality.

Belief

Hume then considers the process of causal inference, and in so doing he introduces the concept of belief. When people see a glass fall, they not only think of its breaking but expect and believe that it will break. Or, starting from an effect, when they see the ground to be generally wet, they not only think of rain but believe that there has been rain. Thus belief is a significant component in the process of causal inference. Hume then proceeds to investigate the nature of belief, claiming that he was the first to do so. He uses the term, however, in the narrow sense of belief regarding matters of fact. He defines belief as a sort of liveliness or vividness that accompanies the perception of an idea. A belief, in other words, is a vivid or lively idea. This vividness is originally possessed by some of the objects of awareness—by impressions and by the simple memory-images of them. By association it comes to belong to certain ideas as well. In the process of causal inference, then, an observer passes from an impression to an idea regularly associated with it. In the process the aspect of liveliness proper to the impression infects the idea, Hume asserts. And it is this aspect of liveliness that Hume defines as the essence of belief.

Hume does not claim to prove that events themselves are not causally related or that they will not be related in the future in the same ways as they were in the past. Indeed, he firmly believes the contrary and insists that everybody else does as well. Belief in causality and in the resemblance of the future to the past are natural beliefs, inextinguishable propensities of human nature (madness apart), and even necessary for human survival. Rather, what Hume claims to prove is that such natural beliefs are not obtained from, and cannot be demonstrated by, either empirical observation or reason, whether intuitive or inferential. Although reflection shows that there is no evidence for them, it also shows that humans are bound to have them and that it is sensible and sane to do so. This is Hume’s skepticism: it is an affirmation of that tension, a denial not of belief but of certainty.

Morals and historical writing

The Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a refinement of Hume’s thinking on morality, in which he views sympathy as the fact of human nature lying at the basis of all social life and personal happiness. Defining morality as those qualities that are approved (1) in whomsoever they happen to be and (2) by virtually everybody, he sets himself to discover the broadest grounds of the approvals. He finds them, as he found the grounds of belief, in “feelings,” not in “knowings.” Moral decisions are grounded in moral sentiment. Qualities are valued either for their utility or for their agreeableness, in each case either to their owners or to others. Hume’s moral system aims at the happiness of others (without any such formula as “the greatest happiness of the greatest number”) and at the happiness of self. But regard for others accounts for the greater part of morality. His emphasis is on altruism: the moral sentiments that he claims to find in human beings, he traces, for the most part, to a sentiment for and a sympathy with one’s fellows. It is human nature, he holds, to laugh with the laughing and to grieve with the grieved and to seek the good of others as well as one’s own. Two years after the Enquiry was published, Hume confessed, “I have a partiality for that work”; and at the end of his life he judged it “of all my writings incomparably the best.” Such statements, along with other indications in his later writings, make it possible to suspect that he regarded his moral doctrine as his major work. He here writes as a man having the same commitment to duty as his fellows. The traditional view that he was a detached scoffer is deeply wrong: he was skeptical not of morality but of much theorizing about it.

Following the publication of these works, Hume spent several years (1751–63) in Edinburgh, with two breaks in London. An attempt was made to get him appointed as successor to Adam Smith, the Scottish economist (later to be his close friend), in the chair of logic at Glasgow, but the rumour of atheism prevailed again. In 1752, however, Hume was made keeper of the Advocates’ Library at Edinburgh. There, “master of 30,000 volumes,” he could indulge a desire of some years to turn to historical writing. His History of England, extending from Caesar’s invasion to 1688, came out in six quarto volumes between 1754 and 1762, preceded by Political Discourses (1752). His recent writings had begun to make him known, but these two brought him fame, abroad as well as at home. He also wrote Four Dissertations (1757), which he regarded as a trifle, although it included a rewriting of Book II of the Treatise (completing his purged restatement of this work) and a brilliant study of “the natural history of religion.” In 1762 James Boswell, the biographer of Samuel Johnson, called Hume “the greatest writer in Britain,” and the Roman Catholic Church, in 1761, recognized his philosophical and literary contributions by putting all his writings on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, its list of forbidden books.

The most colourful episode of his life ensued: in 1763 he left England to become secretary to the British embassy in Paris under the Earl of Hertford. The society of Paris accepted him, despite his ungainly figure and gauche manner. He was honoured as eminent in breadth of learning, in acuteness of thought, and in elegance of pen and was taken to heart for his simple goodness and cheerfulness. The salons threw open their doors to him, and he was warmly welcomed by all. For four months in 1765 he acted as chargé d’affaires at the embassy. When he returned to London at the beginning of 1766 (to become, a year later, undersecretary of state), he brought Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the Swiss-born philosopher connected with the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and d’Alembert, with him and found him a refuge from persecution in a country house at Wootton in Staffordshire. This tormented genius suspected a plot, took secret flight back to France, and spread a report of Hume’s bad faith. Hume was partly stung and partly persuaded into publishing the relevant correspondence between them with a connecting narrative (A Concise and Genuine Account of the Dispute Between Mr. Hume and Mr. Rousseau, 1766).

In 1769, somewhat tired of public life and of England too, he again established a residence in his beloved Edinburgh, deeply enjoying the company—at once intellectual and convivial—of friends old and new (he never married), as well as revising the text of his writings. He issued five further editions of his History between 1762 and 1773 as well as eight editions of his collected writings (omitting the Treatise, History, and ephemera) under the title Essays and Treatises between 1753 and 1772, besides preparing the final edition of this collection, which appeared posthumously (1777), and Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, in which he refuted the cosmological and teleological arguments for the existence of God (held back under pressure from friends, it was published posthumously in 1779). His curiously detached autobiography, The Life of David Hume, Esquire, Written by Himself (1777; the title is his own), is dated April 18, 1776. He died in his Edinburgh house after a long illness and was buried on Calton Hill.

Adam Smith, his literary executor, added to the Life a letter that concludes with his judgment on his friend as “approaching as nearly to the idea of a perfectly wise and virtuous man as perhaps the nature of human frailty will permit.” His distinguished friends, with ministers of religion among them, certainly admired and loved him, and there were younger men indebted either to his influence or to his pocket. The mob had heard only that he was an atheist and simply wondered how such an ogre would manage his dying. Yet Boswell has recounted, in a passage in his Private Papers, that, when he visited Hume in his last illness, the philosopher put up a lively, cheerful defense of his disbelief in immortality.

Significance And Influence

That Hume was one of the major figures of his century can hardly be doubted. So his contemporaries thought, and his achievement, as seen in historical perspective, confirms that judgment, though with a shift of emphasis. Some of the reasons for the assessment may be given under four heads:

As a writer

Hume’s style was praised in his lifetime and has often been praised since. It exemplifies the classical standards of his day. It lacks individuality and colour, for he was always proudly on guard against his emotions. The touch is light, except on slight subjects, where it is rather heavy. Yet in his philosophical works he gives an unsought pleasure. Here his detachment, levelness (all on one plane), smoothness, and daylight clearness are proper merits. It is as one of the best writers of scientific prose in English that he stands in the history of style.

As a historian

Between his death and 1894, there were at least 50 editions of his History; and an abridgment, The Student’s Hume (1859; often reprinted), remained in common use for 50 years. Although now outdated, Hume’s History must be regarded as an event of cultural importance. In its own day, moreover, it was an innovation, soaring high above its very few predecessors. It was fuller and set a higher standard of impartiality. His History of England not only traced the deeds of kings and statesmen but also displayed the intellectual interests of the educated citizens—as may be seen, for instance, in the pages on literature and science under the Commonwealth at the end of Chapter 3 and under James II at the end of Chapter 2. It was unprecedentedly readable, in structure as well as in phrasing. Persons and events were woven into causal patterns that furnished a narrative with the goals and resting points of recurrent climaxes. That was to be the plan of future history books for the general reader.

As an economist

Hume steps forward as an economist in the Political Discourses, which were incorporated in Essays and Treatises as Part II of Essays, Moral and Political. How far he influenced Adam Smith remains uncertain: they had broadly similar principles, and both had the excellent habit of illustrating and supporting these from history. He did not formulate a complete system of economic theory, as did Smith in his Wealth of Nations, but Hume introduced several of the new ideas around which the “classical economics” of the 18th century was built. His level of insight can be gathered from his main contentions: that wealth consists not of money but of commodities; that the amount of money in circulation should be kept related to the amount of goods in the market (two points made by the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley); that a low rate of interest is a symptom not of superabundance of money but of booming trade; that no nation can go on exporting only for bullion; that each nation has special advantages of raw materials, climate, and skill, so that a free interchange of products (with some exceptions) is mutually beneficial; and that poor nations impoverish the rest just because they do not produce enough to be able to take much part in that exchange. He welcomed advance beyond an agricultural to an industrial economy as a precondition of any but the barer forms of civilization.

As a philosopher

Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive science of human nature, and he concluded that humans are creatures more of sensitive and practical sentiment than of reason. For many philosophers and historians his importance lies in the fact that Immanuel Kant conceived his critical philosophy in direct reaction to Hume (Kant said that Hume had awakened him from his “dogmatic slumber”). Hume was one of the influences that led Auguste Comte, the 19th-century French mathematician and sociologist, to develop positivism. In Britain Hume’s positive influence is seen in Jeremy Bentham, the early 19th-century jurist and philosopher, who was moved to utilitarianism (the moral theory that right conduct should be determined by the usefulness of its consequences) by Book III of the Treatise, and more extensively in John Stuart Mill, the philosopher and economist who lived later in the 19th century.

In throwing doubt on the assumption of a necessary link between cause and effect, Hume was the first philosopher of the postmedieval world to reformulate the skepticism of the ancients. His reformulation, moreover, was carried out in a new and compelling way. Although he admired Newton, Hume’s subtle undermining of causality called in question the philosophical basis of Newton’s science as a way of looking at the world, inasmuch as that science rested on the identification of a few fundamental causal laws that govern the universe. As a result, the positivists of the 19th century were obliged to wrestle with Hume’s questioning of causality if they were to succeed in their aim of making science the central framework of human thought.

For much of the 20th century it was Hume’s naturalism rather than his skepticism that attracted attention, chiefly among analytic philosophers. Hume’s naturalism lies in his belief that philosophical justification could be rooted only in regularities of the natural world. The attraction of that contention for analytic philosophers was that it seemed to provide a solution to the problems arising from the skeptical tradition that Hume himself, in his other philosophical role, had done so much to reinvigorate.

New Jersey, constituent state of the United States of America. One of the original 13 states, it is bounded by New York to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, and Delaware and Pennsylvania to the west. The state was named for the island of Jersey in the English Channel. The capital is Trenton.

Although it has major social, economic, and political force in its own right, New Jersey is sometimes looked upon as a stepchild among the heavily industrialized and populated states along the Eastern Seaboard. New Jersey is one of the smallest states in area, but it is highly urbanized and has one of the country’s highest population densities. Hundreds of thousands of its citizens commute to New York and Pennsylvania. New Jersey’s transportation system is one of the busiest and most extensive in the world, and it weaves the state into the fabric of the region by funneling goods and people to New York City and other points north and to Philadelphia and points south. For hundreds of thousands of visitors it offers long stretches of fine beaches along the Atlantic Ocean, and the resort town of Atlantic City may be better known than the state itself.

Above all, New Jersey is rife with contradiction and anomaly. Its people fiercely fight off attempts of state government to end home rule by powerful municipal administrations. While the state has produced some of the most able and respected U.S. governors, corruption has often played a part in its local politics, and it has achieved notoriety as a major locus of organized crime.

New Jersey is called the Garden State because it became famous in the 18th century for the fertility of its land. It is now also among the most urbanized and crowded of states. The urban density of its northeast contrasts sharply, however, with the rugged hills of the northwest, the enormous stretches of pine forest in the southeast (the Pine Barrens), and the rolling and lush horse country in the south-central part of the state. New Jersey is an important industrial centre, but it has paid the price in environmental pollution, in dirt and noise, and in congested roads and slums. In sum, New Jersey is a curious amalgam of urban and rural, poor and wealthy, progressive and conservative, parochial and cosmopolitan. Indeed, it is one of the most diverse states in the union. Area 8,723 square miles (22,591 square km). Population (2010) 8,791,894; (2019 est.) 8,882,190.

Land

Relief

New Jersey comprises four distinct physical regions: the Ridge and Valley section of the northwest, where the folded Appalachian Mountains slice across the state; the Highlands, a southern extension of the ancient rocks of New England, which also trend across the state in a northeast-southwest direction; the rolling central Piedmont, where many of the major cities and suburbs are located; and the relatively level Atlantic Coastal Plain, which is divided into an inner and an outer portion. The state’s highest elevation is High Point, at 1,803 feet (550 metres), located just south of the New York border in Sussex county.

The Outer Coastal Plain, with its relatively poor sandy soils, is where the Pine Barrens are located. The best soils are located on the Inner Coastal Plain and on the Piedmont and in valleys in the New England section south of the last glacial advance. Although suburbanization has devoured much of New Jersey’s agricultural land, substantial estates and farms still exist in parts of the Piedmont, and truck farms still dominate many parts of the southern Inner Coastal Plain. The northern Inner Coastal Plain is home to prosperous horse farms, and some dairying still exists in the Ridge and Valley section. The most striking features of the state are its beaches, the Pine Barrens, The Palisades facing Manhattan, the broad marshes and swampland in the northeast, and the hills of the northwest, including the famous Delaware Water Gap.

Drainage

Lakes and ponds cover about 300 square miles (780 square km) of the state’s surface. New Jersey’s major river, which it shares with Pennsylvania, is the Delaware. The Hudson River separates the state from New York. Other major rivers are the Passaic and the Hackensack, both in the northeast, and the Raritan, which runs west to east and is generally regarded as the boundary between North and Central Jersey. Lake Hopatcong, in Sussex and Morris counties, is the state’s largest lake.

Climate

The northwest experiences relatively cold winters, with average January temperatures below 28 °F (−2 °C). Relatively mild conditions prevail in the south, with average winter temperatures above freezing. Summers are relatively hot throughout the state, with averages for July ranging from about 70 °F (21 °C) in the northwest to above 76 °F (24 °C) in the southwest. Moist conditions prevail, with seasonally well-distributed precipitation averaging from 44 inches to more than 52 inches (1,120 to 1,320 mm).

Plant and animal life

Virtually all of the plant life that is common to the northeastern United States can be found in New Jersey, and many rare plant species grow in the marshes and Pine Barrens, including some insect-ingesting plants. The Barrens are dominated, however, by oak and pine on the well-drained sites and by white cedar in the poorly drained bogs. Common trees elsewhere include oaks, sugar maples, hemlocks, birches, ashes, sweet gums, and other deciduous species. Common plants are wild azaleas, rhododendrons, honeysuckles, mountain laurels, wintergreen, and cardinal flowers.

The marshy area west of The Palisades (the Hackensack Meadows, popularly called the Meadowlands) and the Great Swamp of Morris county are relics of glacial lakes of the last Ice Age. The former is dominated by grasses, the latter by trees. The Meadowlands are managed to encourage wise land use and pollution abatement. The Great Swamp, one of several poorly drained areas in the Passaic River basin, is a national wildlife refuge. Elsewhere, increasing suburban development has encroached on wildlife habitats; bears and especially deer have become serious pests. Raccoons and opossums are common, even in many suburbs, and other mammals, snakes, and birds common to the northeastern United States (including migratory species) are also found within the state.

People

Population composition

New Jersey’s population reflects the immigration patterns of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Germans and Slavs, Russian and European Jews, Irish, and Italians. Those categorized as white (i.e., generally of European origin) constitute more than two-thirds of the population. New Jersey was a prime destination for the waves of African Americans who left the South during and after World War II; more than one-tenth of the state’s total population is made up of African Americans. There is also a sizable Hispanic population, the largest subgroups of which are Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans. In the late 20th century, immigrant groups began to grow even more diverse and included South Asians, Portuguese, different Latin American groups, and others.

Italian Americans are the state’s largest ethnic group. They are the predominant white bloc in the cities, although the cities also contain sizable Polish, Hungarian, and other eastern European groups. Italian Americans and African Americans dominate the political and cultural life of the cities—a situation that at times has brought the two groups into competition and conflict.

Settlement patterns

The most distinctive of New Jersey’s regions is its long shoreline, which stretches for 125 miles (200 km). Much of it is composed of long and narrow barrier islands separated from the mainland by shallow lagoons and from one another by tidal inlets. Cape May, at the southern tip of the state, was among the first summer resorts in the country, and both that community and Long Branch in Monmouth county were known as the playgrounds of presidents during the 19th century. The quality of the Shore, as it is called, ranges from the urban garishness of Asbury Park to the opulence of Deal and Mantoloking. In such resorts as Wildwood and Atlantic City, the nightlife goes until dawn, whereas other seaside towns such as Avalon, Ocean City, and Beach Haven are family resorts. The Jersey Shore at its best can be found in two parks, Sandy Hook (part of Gateway National Recreation Area) in the north and Island Beach, a state park, in the south. The dunes there are still topped with coarse but fragile grass, and osprey still build their nests there. The marshes teem with wildlife, and the trees are bent and twisted by wind and salt spray. More than two-fifths of the land is forested.

Five northeastern counties in the New York City metropolitan area—Essex, Hudson, Passaic, Bergen, and Union—contain nearly two-fifths of New Jersey’s population. Four of the six largest cities in the state—Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Elizabeth—are located there. The Newark–Hudson county–Elizabeth complex appears to many travelers as one endless industrial city: dingy and smelly but throbbing with commercial life.

Beyond the cities lie the suburbs. Most are pleasant and prosperous, but some of the older ones show signs of urban blight. Industrial construction in suburban communities has increased, but many suburban towns, especially in Bergen county, remain bedroom communities of New York City and of the New Jersey cities. Newark’s population doubles every day as the workforce pours in. New Jersey remains dominated, however, by the two giant cities just beyond its borders. Hundreds of thousands of New Jerseyans cross the Hudson to New York City on the average workday. North Jerseyans watch New York television, root (for the most part) for New York athletic teams, and patronize New York theatres and restaurants. A similar situation exists in Camden, Burlington, Gloucester, and Mercer counties, where residents cross the Delaware to jobs in Philadelphia.

South Jersey begins south of Trenton and comprises most of eight counties. It includes roughly half of the state’s area but only about one-fourth of the population. The loamy soil of the Inner Coastal Plain is well suited to vegetable farming, and most of the land not covered by forest or marsh is farmed. Pinelands National Reserve, covering about 1,700 square miles (4,400 square km) in the Outer Coastal Plain, was established in 1978; it was the country’s first national reserve, in which the federal government provided funds for the purchase of a core of undeveloped land while state and local authorities were responsible for resource evaluation and economic planning in surrounding developed areas.

Central Jersey, all of five counties and part of three, is largely a plain, but hilly areas occur in Hunterdon and Somerset counties. Middlesex and Mercer counties, especially the former, are industrialized. Princeton University is located in Mercer county and the borough of Princeton, which combines the charm of the campus with a rich colonial past to create one of the country’s loveliest towns. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, has its main campus in nearby New Brunswick. Hunterdon and Somerset counties are a mixture of suburban development, farmland, and woodland.

The four counties of northwestern New Jersey comprise a mixture of small town, affluent suburb, and rugged countryside, although two major cities, Passaic and Paterson, are located in Passaic county. The area contains some remaining dairy farms and parks and recreation areas.

Although relatively small, the Meadowlands are immensely valuable because of their location in the centre of one of the world’s busiest metropolitan areas. By the late 1960s, New Jersey had put together the machinery to develop this area through the Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission (now the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission). In 1976 the Meadowlands Sports Complex began operations with the opening of a racetrack. In 1976 Giants (gridiron football) Stadium was completed, and the Continental Airlines Arena (formerly the Brendan Byrne Arena) opened in 1981. Warehouses and corporate buildings have also been constructed in the area.

The most striking demographic trend in New Jersey is the movement of the white population away from the cities and the concurrent proportional growth of the urban black and Hispanic population, accompanied by an emigration of industry and commerce. Old, outmoded factories are left behind for sleek new buildings outside cities, and huge suburban shopping centres have replaced the downtown department stores. This shift means more jobs in the suburbs, and the jobs create a commensurate demand for housing. The populations of the cities bordering those areas have become increasingly African American and Hispanic, and the cities suffer from continuing decay and poor-quality housing and services.

Economy

Alexander Hamilton’s attempt in 1791 to build the country’s first industrial town at Paterson was initially a failure. He had the right idea, however, for New Jersey was destined to become an industrial giant. Although New Jersey remains an important manufacturing state, employment in that sector has declined. Today, jobs in the service sector outnumber manufacturing jobs more than three to one. Nonetheless, the State Division of Economic Development, along with the major utilities and business organizations, has conducted an effective program of marketing New Jersey to industry. New Jersey has continued to attract many industries, especially corporate headquarters from New York City, largely through its greater space, better transportation, and favourable tax rates.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

The spread of industry and housing since the late 20th century has cost New Jersey much of its farmland, which has become the most valuable per acre in the United States. Farms cover about one-sixth of the state’s land area. Less than 1 percent of the state’s population is engaged in farming, but farm income per acre is among the highest in the country. New Jersey farmers grow a large variety of fruits and vegetables, including blueberries, cranberries, peaches, asparagus, bell peppers, and the famous New Jersey tomatoes. Greenhouse products, dairy products, and fruits account for the vast majority of the state’s total farm income.

The vast majority of timberland in New Jersey is privately owned, and the state has a small but vibrant forestry sector. Likewise, fishing constitutes a small but significant component of the state’s economy. Based in Cape May and other ports along the Jersey Shore, the sector lands a great variety of seafood (notably shellfish) annually. The state has been actively promoting aquaculture since the mid-1990s.

Resources, manufacturing, and power

The state was once renowned for its mineral deposits, notably iron ores, and New Jersey provided much of the iron used to make artillery during the American Revolution. Now, nearly all raw materials and fossil fuels must be imported; sand and stone are the most important minerals exploited. New Jersey’s major industries include the production of chemicals and the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment, textiles, food, toys, sporting goods, and stone, glass, and clay products. About half of the state’s electricity is generated by thermal plants and the other half at nuclear facilities, with a tiny proportion from other sources.

Services, labour, and taxation

New Jersey has a large and prestigious research sector, with one of the country’s highest numbers of engineers and scientists per capita. The great inventor Thomas Alva Edison established a research laboratory in Menlo Park in 1876. There he created the incandescent lamp and the phonograph and pioneered motion-picture technology. Today the landscape of the central part of the state is replete with the research facilities of international repute that have succeeded Edison’s pioneering laboratory.

Resorts and tourism are a significant part of New Jersey’s economy, especially in the south, where a bad year at the Shore hurts the economic well-being of the entire region. Gambling has contributed greatly to the service sector since the mid-1970s, when residents of New Jersey approved a constitutional amendment to permit gambling casinos at Atlantic City.

New Jersey has one of the country’s highest rates of union membership among employed workers. In absolute terms it has one of the highest numbers of union members, despite the state’s small size. This high participation level reflects the degree of New Jersey’s industrialization and organized labour’s long history in the state. Among the many significant labour strikes have been those of silk workers in Paterson in 1913 and of woolen-mill workers in Passaic in 1926.

New Jersey’s greatest source of tax revenue is individual and corporate income taxes, followed closely by various sales taxes. Licenses and property taxes provide smaller portions of revenue.

Transportation

Since colonial days, when New Jersey’s roads first linked Philadelphia and New York City, transportation has been the lifeblood of the state’s economy, and its role in New Jersey can best be appreciated in the Newark area. There, a dozen lanes of the New Jersey Turnpike converge with the main line of Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation), Newark Liberty International Airport, Port Newark, and the Elizabeth–Port Authority Marine Terminal to provide one of the world’s most dynamic transportation landscapes.

The economy of northern New Jersey is bound tightly to that of New York City, and the commercial traffic between the two states is the country’s heaviest. In 1921 the states of New York and New Jersey formed the Port of New York Authority, now called the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey—a bistate commission empowered to finance and operate transportation facilities in the New York metropolitan area. The Port Authority, as it is known, is a public corporation operating Newark and Teterboro airports in New Jersey and La Guardia and Kennedy airports in New York, as well as the Lincoln and Holland tunnels, three bridges, huge piers, bus and rail lines, and truck terminals.

A similar but much smaller transit complex exists in the Camden area and links the South Jersey area with Philadelphia. Camden has a deepwater port on the Delaware River and high-speed transit to Philadelphia.

Even before World War II, New Jersey had one of the country’s finest road networks, and it subsequently built an extensive network of toll highways. The New Jersey Turnpike runs the length of the state from the George Washington Bridge in the northeast to the Delaware Memorial Bridge in the southwest. The Garden State Parkway stretches southward along the eastern side of the state from the New York state line nearly to Cape May, and the Atlantic City Expressway connects Atlantic City with the Camden area to the northwest.

Government and society

Constitutional framework

New Jersey has had three constitutions. The current constitution dates from 1947 and has been amended many times. New Jersey governors serve terms of four years, and they are permitted reelection to a second term. The governor appoints, with the advice and consent of the Senate (one of the state legislature’s two chambers; the lower house is called the General Assembly), virtually all top state officers and members of state boards, state authorities, and the judiciary; the governor also has the authority to supersede county prosecutors. By virtue of having broad executive and administrative powers, a vast patronage network, and unequaled access to the press, radio, and television, the governor of New Jersey is a relatively strong chief executive. A two-thirds majority of both legislative houses is necessary to override a gubernatorial veto.

In 1966, in response to a U.S. Supreme Court decision, the New Jersey legislature adopted the “one man, one vote” principle. Voters in each of the state’s 40 districts choose one senator and two General Assembly members. Assembly members serve two-year terms. The Senate operates on a “2-4-4” cycle; senators are elected to four-year terms, except at the beginning of a decade, when they serve a two-year term. This allows for new elections as soon as possible after the reapportionment that occurs following the decennial census.

New Jersey’s 21 counties are administered by boards of freeholders elected countywide. The boards vary from three to nine members, depending on the size of the county. In addition to these elected officials, local governments are supplemented by service commissions, boards, and authorities, many of which enjoy wide independence and even autonomy. Attempts to merge municipalities, reduce the number of school districts by consolidation, or strengthen county government have not been successful; local power and prerogatives are important determinants in New Jersey politics.

Although there have been signs that civic bossism is declining, New Jersey’s political system was long dominated by strong county leaders who drew their power from the patronage and contracts that they dispensed through control of the municipal courthouse or city hall. The most notorious of those bosses was Frank Hague, who ruled Jersey City and Hudson county from 1917 to 1947. For three decades Hague dominated the Democratic Party and heavily influenced the Republicans. His philosophy of government was best summed up in his famous reply to those who told him an order he gave was against the law: “I am the law.”

Education

Public elementary and secondary schools in New Jersey are largely locally funded and controlled. There was no state university until 1946, when New Jersey took over full responsibility for Rutgers. Rutgers, which began as Queen’s College in 1766, is today composed of three campuses (New Brunswick [main campus], Newark, and Camden) and a wide variety of colleges and programs. Princeton University (formerly the College of New Jersey; 1746), an Ivy League school, is one of the country’s most prestigious private institutions. Princeton Theological Seminary and the Institute for Advanced Study are also located in Princeton. Other institutions of higher learning include the College of New Jersey (public; 1855), in Trenton; Seton Hall University (Roman Catholic; 1856), in South Orange; and Stevens Institute of Technology (private; 1870), in Hoboken.

Health and welfare

Most of the services available to the citizens of New Jersey come from the state, although most of the major counties maintain institutions of one kind or another, and much funding comes through federal agencies.

Cultural life

New Jersey long has been well served by the cultural amenities of New York City and Philadelphia, and therefore the state lagged somewhat in developing its own. New Jersey helped correct that situation with the 1968 opening, in Holmdel, of the Garden State (now PNC Bank) Arts Center. The New Jersey Performing Arts Center (opened 1997), in downtown Newark, holds performances by the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra. These facilities have proved to be a success, and their programming of music, drama, and dance has been well received.

New Jersey has been the home and inspiration for a large number of popular musicians. Among those most strongly associated with the state have been Bruce Springsteen, who grew up in Freehold but whose early music was indelibly linked to the Jersey Shore, and Hoboken native Frank Sinatra, who was discovered by bandleader Harry James while singing at a New Jersey venue. Other notable performers from the state include Sarah Vaughan, Dionne Warwick, Whitney Houston, and the heavy metal band Bon Jovi.

There are several summer theatres in New Jersey, most of them located near vacation areas. The McCarter Theatre Center, on the Princeton University campus, is open throughout the year and presents high-quality plays, music, and dance performances. Theatrical events and concerts also take place at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford. Best known as a sports venue, however, the Meadowlands is home to professional athletic teams of both New York and New Jersey. Among the teams that play there are the Jets and the Giants (gridiron football) and the Red Bulls (football [soccer]). The complex includes a horse-racing track where the Hambletonian Stake is run annually. The Devils (ice hockey) play at the Prudential Center in Newark; that venue also hosts other sports teams (professional and amateur), as well as entertainment events.

New Jersey has dozens of museums, many of them operated in conjunction with historic sites or buildings. The New Jersey State Museum, which includes a planetarium, is located in the state capitol complex in Trenton. Rutgers University’s Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum (formerly the Rutgers University Art Gallery), one of the country’s largest university art museums, houses important collections of Russian and Soviet art and 19th- and 20th-century French prints. The Newark Museum and the Princeton University Art Museum are among other well-known institutions.

New Jersey’s rich traditions are manifested in such historic homes and sites as the Rockingham State Historic Site, Washington’s winter headquarters near Princeton, where he wrote his farewell address to the Continental Army; Morven Museum and Garden (1755), in Princeton, located in the former governor’s mansion and onetime home of Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence; the restored 18th- and 19th-century colonial villages of Batsto and Allaire; and the Camden home of poet Walt Whitman. These and other historic sites attract thousands of tourists each year. New Jersey also operates a system of more than 35 state parks, about a dozen forests, several national recreation areas, some 40 natural areas, and several state marinas. Washington Crossing State Park is located in Trenton. Great Falls State Park, in Paterson, features 77-foot- (23-metre-) high falls and restored historic mill buildings and raceways.

History

The colony

Before the Europeans arrived, the Delaware (or Lenni Lenape) Indians had long occupied the region. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to reach New Jersey. Almost a century passed before colonization began with the arrival in 1609 of the English navigator Henry Hudson, who sent a party to explore Sandy Hook Bay. The first permanent European settlement was established by the Dutch at Bergen (now Jersey City) in 1660. The colony was brought under English rule in 1664, although for the next nine years the Dutch disputed that claim. In 1676 the province was divided into East and West Jersey, the former going to Sir George Carteret and the latter to a group of Friends (Quakers). The division continued until 1702, when the entire province reverted to the crown.

Unlike other colonists, who suffered from the harshness of English rule, the early Jerseyans were of such an independent nature that it was the royal governors who did much of the suffering. Until 1738 a single governor ruled New Jersey and New York. When Lewis Morris took office as the first governor of New Jersey after the separation, one member of the Assembly advised his colleagues on how governors should be treated: “Let us keep the doges poore [i.e., by paying governors a low salary] and wee’ll make them do as we please.”

Revolution and statehood

Considerable division occurred within the state over the American Revolution, and Tory activity was heavy. The state was the site of more than 100 battles, earning it the nickname Crossroads of the Revolution. The most significant of these took place on Dec. 26, 1776, when Gen. George Washington and his hungry, ragged troops crossed the Delaware River from Pennsylvania in Durham boats (shallow-draft freight vessels), surprised a garrison of German mercenaries in Trenton, and captured the city. A week later, Washington won another vital battle at Princeton, routing the British forces under Col. Charles Mawhood. The victories breathed new life into the Revolution, and an army of colonials near despair was transformed into an effective fighting force. During the war Long Pond Ironworks and Batsto Iron Works (both founded 1766) supplied munitions to American troops. In 1776 New Jersey adopted its first constitution, which granted suffrage to women (although the legislature revoked this right in 1807). In 1787 it became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Trenton, which had served briefly as the national capital in 1784, was made the state capital in 1790. In its early years of statehood, New Jersey concentrated on rebuilding its economy from the damage done during the war.

Growth of the contemporary state

Between the Revolutionary and Civil wars, New Jersey underwent tremendous industrial development, largely abetted by the construction of canals and, later, railroads. The railroads, in particular the Camden and Amboy line (a forerunner of present-day Conrail), played a crucial role in the state’s political life, dominating and controlling legislators and governors during the “robber baron” era of industrial expansion in the 19th century. Accommodating tax laws of that era gave New Jersey the epithet Mother of Trusts—half of the country’s largest corporations made their headquarters in the state by the early 1900s. Public dissatisfaction with the power of the trusts and public utilities reached a high point at the time of the election of Gov. Woodrow Wilson (1911–13), who signed legislation providing for tighter regulation of corporations (later repealed). Economic growth continued during and after World Wars I and II, but the growing decay of the cities continued to be largely overlooked amid general prosperity throughout the 20th century.
Politically, New Jersey is often a swing state in national elections. It historically tended to lean Republican, but, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, voters more decidedly supported the Democrats, who have since frequently controlled the state legislature. The governorship has tended to alternate between Republican and Democrat. In 1993 Republican Christine Todd Whitman became the first female governor of New Jersey.

A master plan for the state’s development, first adopted in 1992 and subsequently updated, aimed to direct growth toward existing infrastructure. The goal was to benefit existing urban and older suburban areas and to protect the state’s natural resources. The state also committed to the acquisition of open space and the reduction of suburban sprawl and its concomitant difficulties for commuters. Simultaneously, there was a rise of “edge cities” (suburban areas that contain all or most of the functions once found only in an urban context). As New Jersey moves through its fourth century of history, it continues to fulfill its potential as a diverse and richly gifted state.

1. Get the basics right

As Java offers so many features and options to the developers, people are sometimes lured into learning too many things in too little time. As a result of this, they get ‘bits and pieces’ knowledge of a few options that Java offers, but their basics hang on a loose thread. Trust me when I say this, Java is one programming language which is easy if you have paid attention to the simple basics, however; it can be frustrating if you get greedy and try to take the shorter route forward.

2. Don’t just read

Well, if your sole purpose of learning Java is to clear the exam you have the next day, go ahead and mug up all the things that you can and you might just get the passing marks. However; if you are really serious about learning Java and getting better at it, the best way to do it is not by reading, but by implementing. Gain knowledge and then execute what you have learnt, in the form of code. You can never learn Java if you are not willing to get your hands dirty.

3. Understand your code and algorithm

Even if you are writing a simple code having a ‘if else’ statement, as a beginner, start by realizing the code on a piece of paper. The algorithm and the whole compiler process will look so meaningful once you understand the idea behind the code. Even for experts, the best way to solve a complex problem or to formulate an algorithm to solve a Java program is to break the problem into sub-parts and then try to devise a solution for each sub part. When you start getting the solutions right, you will get the confidence to work more.

4. Do not forget to allocate memory

This tip is particularly useful for those who switch from C, C++ to Java. The memory allocation in Java using the ‘new’ keyword is a necessity as Java is a dynamic programming language. C, C++ does not explicitly have this feature, therefore you must take care while handling array and object declaration in Java. Not using the ‘new’ keyword will show a null pointer exception in the code.

5. Avoid creating useless objects

When you create an object in Java, you use up memory and processor speed from the system. Since object creation is incomplete without allocating memory to it, it is better to keep the object requirements under check and not create unwanted objects in the code.

6. Interface is better than Abstract class

There is no multiple inheritance in Java, and this will be spoon fed to you so many times while learning the language that you will probably never forget it for the rest of your life. However; the tip here in not to remember that there is no multiple inheritance in Java, but the fact that interface will come in handy if you want to implement something like multiple inheritance without using the extends keyword. Remember, in Java, when nothing goes your way, you will always have interface by your side. Abstract class does not always give programmers the liberty of having a variety of methods to work with, however; interface only have abstract methods therefore is does the job of abstract classes and has other advantages as well.

7. Standard library is a bliss

The biggest advantage that Java has over its predecessors, from a programming point of view, is probably its rich set of standard library methods. Using Java’s standard library makes the job of a programmer easy, more efficient and gives a well organised flow to the code. Further, operations can be performed easily on the methods specified in the library.

8. Prefer Primitive classes over Wrapper Class

Wrapper classes are no doubt, of great utility, but they are often slower than primitive classes. Primitive class only has values while the wrapper class stores information about the entire class. Further, since wrapper classes often deal with object values, comparing them like the primitive classes does not give desired results as it ends up comparing objects instead of values stored in it.

9. Dealing with strings

Since Object oriented programming classifies String as a class, a simple concatenation of two strings might result into the creation of a new string object in Java which eventually affects the memory and speed of the system. It is always better to instantiate a string object directly, without using the constructor for this purpose.

10. Code, Code, Code

There is so much to learn about Java that you just cannot get over with this programming language and it keeps getting more interesting and amusing, however; it is important to maintain the interest within to learn and the hunger to get better. A programming language like Java can be learnt on our own and with great success, but the only thing that is required is continuous learning and coding to test what you have learnt. Java is a lot like playing a sport; the more you sweat in the practice, less you bleed in the match.

★关于“人生”

一个人的价值, 在于他贡献了什么, 而不在于他获得了什么。
——爱因斯坦

我从来不把安逸和快乐看作是生活目的本身, 对这种伦理基础, 我称之为’猪栏的理想’。
——爱因斯坦

未经反思自省的人生不值得去过
The unexamined life is not worth living.
——苏格拉底 (哲学之父)

大多数人在20到30岁就已经过完自己的一生。
一过了这个年龄段, 他们就变成自己的影子, 以后的生命只是在不断重复自己。
——《约翰.克里斯朵夫》罗曼.罗兰

活着, 如同生命最后一天般活着;
学习, 如同永远活着般学习。
——圣雄甘地 (印度国父)

在这个世界上, 人所处的绝境, 在很多情况下, 都不是生存的绝境, 而是精神的绝境!

人生中最大的两个财富是: 你的才华和你的时间。
才华越来越多而时间越来越少。我们的一生就是用时间来换取才华。

Stay hungry. Stay foolish.
——史蒂夫.乔布斯引自《全球概览》

这辈子没法做太多的事情, 所以每一件都要做到精彩绝伦!
——史蒂夫.乔布斯

我每天都自问: ‘如果今天是我生命的最后一天, 我还会做今天打算做的事情吗?’
——史蒂夫.乔布斯

想得到你从未拥有过的东西, 就必须做你从未做过的事情。

预测未来最好的方法就是去创造未来
——林肯 (美国前总统)

没有人可以回到过去重新开始, 但谁都可以从现在开始, 书写一个全然不同的结局!

人生最大的一种痛, 不是失败, 而是没有经历自己想要经历的一切。

你若不想做, 总能找到借口; 你若想做, 总会找到方法
——阿拉伯谚语

宁鸣而死 不默而生
——范仲淹

获得信任的技巧就是避免使用任何技巧

判断一个人的人品, 不是看他好起来做什么好事, 而是看他坏起来【不做】什么坏事。

不要去欺骗别人 – 因为你能骗到的人, 都是相信你的人。

想要成功, 就要学会在机遇从头顶上飞过时跳起来并抓住它。
这样逮到机遇的概率才大!
——比尔.盖茨

授人以鱼不如授人以渔!
授人以鱼只救一时之急, 授人以渔则可解一生之需。

★关于“学习和思考”

兴趣是最好的老师
——爱因斯坦

知识上的投资总能得到最好的回报。
——本杰明.富兰克林 (美国开国元勋 物理学家 作家)

学习不是填满水桶, 而是点燃火焰!
Education is not the filling of a pail but the lighting of a fire.
——叶芝 (爱尔兰诗人)

我唯一能确定的就是自己的无知
——苏格拉底 (哲学之父)

真正的无知不是知识的贫乏, 而是拒绝获取知识!
——波普尔 (哲学家 思想家)

读书是在别人思想的帮助下建立自己的思想
——尼古拉.鲁巴金 (俄国作家)

不要盲目地崇拜任何权威, 因为你总能找到相反的权威。
——罗素 (哲学家 数学家 诺贝尔文学奖得主)

仅仅凭借信仰跟从就等于盲从
To follow by faith alone is to follow blindly.
——本杰明.富兰克林 (美国开国元勋 物理学家 作家)

想象力比知识更重要! 因为知识是有限的, 而想象力概括着世界的一切, 推动着进步, 并且是知识进化的源泉。
——爱因斯坦

你要按你所想的去生活; 否则, 你迟早会按你所生活的去想!

大多数人宁愿死去, 也不愿思考。 – 事实上他们也确实到死都没有思考。
——罗素 (哲学家 数学家 诺贝尔文学奖得主)

对知识分子而言, 成为思维的精英比成为道德的精英更重要。
——王小波 (作家)

只有两样东西可能是无限的: 宇宙的大小和人类的愚蠢。不过, 对于前者我不太确定 :)
——爱因斯坦

★关于“编程”

没有银弹(万能药)
NO silver bullet
——Fred Brooks (图灵奖得主 《人月神话》作者)

编程的艺术就是处理复杂性的艺术
——Edsger Dijkstra (图灵奖得主)

◇关于“设计”

简单即是美
Simple is beautiful

简单是可靠的先决条件
Simplicity is prerequisite for reliability.
——Edsger Dijkstra (图灵奖得主)

优秀软件的作用是让复杂的东西看起来简单
——Grady Booch (UML创始人之一)

设计软件有两种方法: 一种是简单到极致而明显没有缺陷; 另一种是复杂到极致以至于没有明显的缺陷。前者要难得多!
——C.A.R.Hoare

优秀的设计在不断地演化, 糟糕的设计在不断地打补丁。

最纯粹、最抽象的设计难题就是设计桥梁。你面对的问题是: 如何用最少的材料, 跨越给定的距离。
——保罗.格雷汉姆 (知名黑客 硅谷牛人)

在不同的层次审视你的设计

在软件’可重用’之前先得’可用’
——Ralph Johnson (设计模式四人帮之一)

软件设计就像做爱, 一次犯错, 你要用余下的一生来维护。
——Michael Sinz

更好的工具未必能做出更好的设计

◇关于“代码质量”

好的程序员是那种过单行道马路都要往两边看的人
——Doug Linder

好的程序代码本身就是最好的文档
——《代码大全》Steve McConnell

假如程序代码和注释不一致, 那么很可能两者都是错的!
——Norm Schryer

你写下的任何代码, 在六个月以后去看的话, 都像是别人写的。
——Tom Cargill

程序必须首先让人类可以理解, 然后顺便让机器能执行。
——《SICP》

◇关于“编程语言”

不能影响你编程观点的语言, 不值得你去学。
——Alan Perlis

世界上只有两种编程语言: 要么充满了抱怨; 要么没人使用。
——Bjarne Stroustrup (C++之父)

没有哪种编程语言能阻止程序员写出糟糕的代码, 不管这种语言的结构有多么好。
——Larry Flon

C语言诡异离奇, 缺陷重重, 但却获得了巨大的成功 :)
——Dennis Ritchie (C语言之父 Unix之父)

(相对C而言)在C++里, 想搬起石头砸自己的脚更为困难了。
不过一旦你真这么做了, 整条腿都得报销!
——Bjarne Stroustrup (C++之父)

Java与JavaScript的关系, 如同雷锋与雷峰塔的关系

◇关于“软件工程”

在理论上, 理论和实践是没有差异的; 但在实践中, 是有的。
In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. But in practice, there is.
——Snepscheut

在进度落后的项目中增加人手只会导致进度更加落后
——Fred Brooks (图灵奖得主 《人月神话》作者)

用代码行数测算软件开发进度如同按重量测算飞机的制造进度
——比尔.盖茨

在水上行走和按需求文档开发软件都很容易 – 前提是它们都处于冻结状态
——Edward V Berard

乐观主义是软件开发的职业病, 用户反馈则是其治疗方法。
——Kent Beck (Extreme Programming之父)

软件开发是一场程序员和上帝的竞赛:
程序员要开发出更大更好、连傻瓜都会用的软件; 而上帝在努力创造更傻的傻瓜。
到目前为止, 一直是上帝赢。
——Rick Cook

◇关于“调试/debug”

如果建筑工人像程序员写软件那样盖房子, 那第一只飞来的啄木鸟就能毁掉人类文明。
——Gerald Weinberg (软件工程大牛)

如果调试(debug)是去除bug的过程, 那么编程就是制造bug的过程。
——Edsger Dijkstra (图灵奖得主)

要在自己的代码里找出一个bug是十分困难的。而当你认为你的代码没有错误时, 那就更难了。
——《代码大全》Steve McConnel

调试代码比新编写代码更困难。
因此, 如果你尽自己所能写出了最复杂的代码, 你将没有更大的智慧去调试它。

◇关于“性能优化”

过早的优化是万恶之源 Premature optimization is the root of all evil.
——Donald Knuth (算法大牛 图灵奖得主)

Tape is Dead, Disk is Tape, Flash is Disk, RAM Locality is King!
——Jim Gray (数据库大牛 图灵奖得主)

◇关于“开源”

软件就像’性’, 免费的时候更好!
Software is like sex; it’s better when it’s free.
——Linus Torvalds (Linux之父)

★关于“经济”

我也会有恐惧和贪婪, 只不过是在大众贪婪时恐惧, 在大众恐惧时贪婪!
——巴菲特

控制风险的最好办法是深入思考, 而不是投资组合。
——巴菲特

价值投资不能保证我们盈利, 但价值投资给我们提供了通向成功的唯一机会。
——巴菲特

我从事投资时, 会观察一家公司的全貌; 而大多数投资人只盯着它的股价。
——巴菲特

投资成功与否并非取决于你了解的东西, 而在于你能否老老实实地承认你所不知道的东西。
投资人并不需要做对很多事情, 重要的是不要犯重大的错误。
——巴菲特

所谓’市场效率学说’之类的投资教条, 不过是为了增加投资的神秘性, 好让投资顾问得以从中牟利罢了。
——巴菲特

退潮时, 便可知道谁在裸泳。
——巴菲特

短期而言, 股票市场是个投票机; 长期而言, 股票市场是个称重器。
——本杰明.格雷厄姆

投资是预测资产收益的活动, 而投机是预测市场心理的活动。
——凯恩斯

投资的风险来自于: 你不知道你在做什么 :)
——巴菲特

★关于“管理”

用人不在于如何减少人的短处, 而在于如何发挥人的长处。
——彼得.德鲁克 (管理学之父)

企业最大的资产是人!
——松下幸之助 (号称日本经营之神)

你想雇用的人必须具备3种品质: 正直诚实、聪明能干和精力充沛。如果缺少第一种, 后两种品质会要你命!
——巴菲特

以用户为中心, 其它一切纷至沓来!
——Google 信条

只有偏执狂才能生存!
——Andy Grove (英特尔创始人之一, 前任CEO)

领袖和跟风者的区别就在于创新!
——史蒂夫.乔布斯

我的管理风格既不是美国的个人主义, 也不是日本的共识主义, 而是独特的达尔文主义(适者生存)!
——比尔.盖茨

我们没有不懂技术的管理人员 – 因为寻求技术和管理的平衡毫不费力!
——比尔.盖茨

伟大的车工值得给他几倍于普通车工的薪水。但一个伟大的程序员, 其价值相当于普通程序员的1万倍!
——比尔.盖茨

当你用一个手指指着某人时, 请注意其它三个手指在指哪儿。
——Gerald Weinberg (软件工程大牛)

唯一不变的是变化本身!

1、

初学者眼里有很多可能性,专家眼里只有很少可能性。(In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert’s there are few.)

铃木俊隆(Shunryu Suzuki),日本禅宗僧人

2、

输入要保持开放,输出要保持保守。(Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send.)

Jon Postel 谈如何设计接口

3、

爬得越高,获救的机会也就越少。

埃德·维斯特斯(Ed Viesturs),美国著名登山家

4、

广受欢迎的技术会被过度使用,Node.js 就是如此,被用在许多不适合的场合。

《Node.js 的过度使用》

5、

Snapchat 是斯坦福大学两个大学生写的一个聊天工具,它基于一个疯狂的想法:用户共享的所有内容都是临时的,半天后就会自动消失,你想看也看不到。

这后来成为社交媒体的新趋势:实时显示”真实生活”,大受欢迎。

《最疯狂的创业想法》

6、

数学家理查德·汉明(Richard Hamming)总是问其他领域的科学家:”你的领域中最重要的问题是什么?”,然后问第二个问题:”你为什么不研究它们?”。

《汉明问题》