New Jersey, constituent state of the United States of America. One of the original 13 states, it is bounded by New York to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, and Delaware and Pennsylvania to the west. The state was named for the island of Jersey in the English Channel. The capital is Trenton.
Although it has major social, economic, and political force in its own right, New Jersey is sometimes looked upon as a stepchild among the heavily industrialized and populated states along the Eastern Seaboard. New Jersey is one of the smallest states in area, but it is highly urbanized and has one of the country’s highest population densities. Hundreds of thousands of its citizens commute to New York and Pennsylvania. New Jersey’s transportation system is one of the busiest and most extensive in the world, and it weaves the state into the fabric of the region by funneling goods and people to New York City and other points north and to Philadelphia and points south. For hundreds of thousands of visitors it offers long stretches of fine beaches along the Atlantic Ocean, and the resort town of Atlantic City may be better known than the state itself.
Above all, New Jersey is rife with contradiction and anomaly. Its people fiercely fight off attempts of state government to end home rule by powerful municipal administrations. While the state has produced some of the most able and respected U.S. governors, corruption has often played a part in its local politics, and it has achieved notoriety as a major locus of organized crime.
New Jersey is called the Garden State because it became famous in the 18th century for the fertility of its land. It is now also among the most urbanized and crowded of states. The urban density of its northeast contrasts sharply, however, with the rugged hills of the northwest, the enormous stretches of pine forest in the southeast (the Pine Barrens), and the rolling and lush horse country in the south-central part of the state. New Jersey is an important industrial centre, but it has paid the price in environmental pollution, in dirt and noise, and in congested roads and slums. In sum, New Jersey is a curious amalgam of urban and rural, poor and wealthy, progressive and conservative, parochial and cosmopolitan. Indeed, it is one of the most diverse states in the union. Area 8,723 square miles (22,591 square km). Population (2010) 8,791,894; (2019 est.) 8,882,190.
New Jersey comprises four distinct physical regions: the Ridge and Valley section of the northwest, where the folded Appalachian Mountains slice across the state; the Highlands, a southern extension of the ancient rocks of New England, which also trend across the state in a northeast-southwest direction; the rolling central Piedmont, where many of the major cities and suburbs are located; and the relatively level Atlantic Coastal Plain, which is divided into an inner and an outer portion. The state’s highest elevation is High Point, at 1,803 feet (550 metres), located just south of the New York border in Sussex county.
The Outer Coastal Plain, with its relatively poor sandy soils, is where the Pine Barrens are located. The best soils are located on the Inner Coastal Plain and on the Piedmont and in valleys in the New England section south of the last glacial advance. Although suburbanization has devoured much of New Jersey’s agricultural land, substantial estates and farms still exist in parts of the Piedmont, and truck farms still dominate many parts of the southern Inner Coastal Plain. The northern Inner Coastal Plain is home to prosperous horse farms, and some dairying still exists in the Ridge and Valley section. The most striking features of the state are its beaches, the Pine Barrens, The Palisades facing Manhattan, the broad marshes and swampland in the northeast, and the hills of the northwest, including the famous Delaware Water Gap.
Lakes and ponds cover about 300 square miles (780 square km) of the state’s surface. New Jersey’s major river, which it shares with Pennsylvania, is the Delaware. The Hudson River separates the state from New York. Other major rivers are the Passaic and the Hackensack, both in the northeast, and the Raritan, which runs west to east and is generally regarded as the boundary between North and Central Jersey. Lake Hopatcong, in Sussex and Morris counties, is the state’s largest lake.
The northwest experiences relatively cold winters, with average January temperatures below 28 °F (−2 °C). Relatively mild conditions prevail in the south, with average winter temperatures above freezing. Summers are relatively hot throughout the state, with averages for July ranging from about 70 °F (21 °C) in the northwest to above 76 °F (24 °C) in the southwest. Moist conditions prevail, with seasonally well-distributed precipitation averaging from 44 inches to more than 52 inches (1,120 to 1,320 mm).
Virtually all of the plant life that is common to the northeastern United States can be found in New Jersey, and many rare plant species grow in the marshes and Pine Barrens, including some insect-ingesting plants. The Barrens are dominated, however, by oak and pine on the well-drained sites and by white cedar in the poorly drained bogs. Common trees elsewhere include oaks, sugar maples, hemlocks, birches, ashes, sweet gums, and other deciduous species. Common plants are wild azaleas, rhododendrons, honeysuckles, mountain laurels, wintergreen, and cardinal flowers.
The marshy area west of The Palisades (the Hackensack Meadows, popularly called the Meadowlands) and the Great Swamp of Morris county are relics of glacial lakes of the last Ice Age. The former is dominated by grasses, the latter by trees. The Meadowlands are managed to encourage wise land use and pollution abatement. The Great Swamp, one of several poorly drained areas in the Passaic River basin, is a national wildlife refuge. Elsewhere, increasing suburban development has encroached on wildlife habitats; bears and especially deer have become serious pests. Raccoons and opossums are common, even in many suburbs, and other mammals, snakes, and birds common to the northeastern United States (including migratory species) are also found within the state.
New Jersey’s population reflects the immigration patterns of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Germans and Slavs, Russian and European Jews, Irish, and Italians. Those categorized as white (i.e., generally of European origin) constitute more than two-thirds of the population. New Jersey was a prime destination for the waves of African Americans who left the South during and after World War II; more than one-tenth of the state’s total population is made up of African Americans. There is also a sizable Hispanic population, the largest subgroups of which are Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans. In the late 20th century, immigrant groups began to grow even more diverse and included South Asians, Portuguese, different Latin American groups, and others.
Italian Americans are the state’s largest ethnic group. They are the predominant white bloc in the cities, although the cities also contain sizable Polish, Hungarian, and other eastern European groups. Italian Americans and African Americans dominate the political and cultural life of the cities—a situation that at times has brought the two groups into competition and conflict.
The most distinctive of New Jersey’s regions is its long shoreline, which stretches for 125 miles (200 km). Much of it is composed of long and narrow barrier islands separated from the mainland by shallow lagoons and from one another by tidal inlets. Cape May, at the southern tip of the state, was among the first summer resorts in the country, and both that community and Long Branch in Monmouth county were known as the playgrounds of presidents during the 19th century. The quality of the Shore, as it is called, ranges from the urban garishness of Asbury Park to the opulence of Deal and Mantoloking. In such resorts as Wildwood and Atlantic City, the nightlife goes until dawn, whereas other seaside towns such as Avalon, Ocean City, and Beach Haven are family resorts. The Jersey Shore at its best can be found in two parks, Sandy Hook (part of Gateway National Recreation Area) in the north and Island Beach, a state park, in the south. The dunes there are still topped with coarse but fragile grass, and osprey still build their nests there. The marshes teem with wildlife, and the trees are bent and twisted by wind and salt spray. More than two-fifths of the land is forested.
Five northeastern counties in the New York City metropolitan area—Essex, Hudson, Passaic, Bergen, and Union—contain nearly two-fifths of New Jersey’s population. Four of the six largest cities in the state—Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Elizabeth—are located there. The Newark–Hudson county–Elizabeth complex appears to many travelers as one endless industrial city: dingy and smelly but throbbing with commercial life.
Beyond the cities lie the suburbs. Most are pleasant and prosperous, but some of the older ones show signs of urban blight. Industrial construction in suburban communities has increased, but many suburban towns, especially in Bergen county, remain bedroom communities of New York City and of the New Jersey cities. Newark’s population doubles every day as the workforce pours in. New Jersey remains dominated, however, by the two giant cities just beyond its borders. Hundreds of thousands of New Jerseyans cross the Hudson to New York City on the average workday. North Jerseyans watch New York television, root (for the most part) for New York athletic teams, and patronize New York theatres and restaurants. A similar situation exists in Camden, Burlington, Gloucester, and Mercer counties, where residents cross the Delaware to jobs in Philadelphia.
South Jersey begins south of Trenton and comprises most of eight counties. It includes roughly half of the state’s area but only about one-fourth of the population. The loamy soil of the Inner Coastal Plain is well suited to vegetable farming, and most of the land not covered by forest or marsh is farmed. Pinelands National Reserve, covering about 1,700 square miles (4,400 square km) in the Outer Coastal Plain, was established in 1978; it was the country’s first national reserve, in which the federal government provided funds for the purchase of a core of undeveloped land while state and local authorities were responsible for resource evaluation and economic planning in surrounding developed areas.
Central Jersey, all of five counties and part of three, is largely a plain, but hilly areas occur in Hunterdon and Somerset counties. Middlesex and Mercer counties, especially the former, are industrialized. Princeton University is located in Mercer county and the borough of Princeton, which combines the charm of the campus with a rich colonial past to create one of the country’s loveliest towns. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, has its main campus in nearby New Brunswick. Hunterdon and Somerset counties are a mixture of suburban development, farmland, and woodland.
The four counties of northwestern New Jersey comprise a mixture of small town, affluent suburb, and rugged countryside, although two major cities, Passaic and Paterson, are located in Passaic county. The area contains some remaining dairy farms and parks and recreation areas.
Although relatively small, the Meadowlands are immensely valuable because of their location in the centre of one of the world’s busiest metropolitan areas. By the late 1960s, New Jersey had put together the machinery to develop this area through the Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission (now the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission). In 1976 the Meadowlands Sports Complex began operations with the opening of a racetrack. In 1976 Giants (gridiron football) Stadium was completed, and the Continental Airlines Arena (formerly the Brendan Byrne Arena) opened in 1981. Warehouses and corporate buildings have also been constructed in the area.
The most striking demographic trend in New Jersey is the movement of the white population away from the cities and the concurrent proportional growth of the urban black and Hispanic population, accompanied by an emigration of industry and commerce. Old, outmoded factories are left behind for sleek new buildings outside cities, and huge suburban shopping centres have replaced the downtown department stores. This shift means more jobs in the suburbs, and the jobs create a commensurate demand for housing. The populations of the cities bordering those areas have become increasingly African American and Hispanic, and the cities suffer from continuing decay and poor-quality housing and services.
Alexander Hamilton’s attempt in 1791 to build the country’s first industrial town at Paterson was initially a failure. He had the right idea, however, for New Jersey was destined to become an industrial giant. Although New Jersey remains an important manufacturing state, employment in that sector has declined. Today, jobs in the service sector outnumber manufacturing jobs more than three to one. Nonetheless, the State Division of Economic Development, along with the major utilities and business organizations, has conducted an effective program of marketing New Jersey to industry. New Jersey has continued to attract many industries, especially corporate headquarters from New York City, largely through its greater space, better transportation, and favourable tax rates.
The spread of industry and housing since the late 20th century has cost New Jersey much of its farmland, which has become the most valuable per acre in the United States. Farms cover about one-sixth of the state’s land area. Less than 1 percent of the state’s population is engaged in farming, but farm income per acre is among the highest in the country. New Jersey farmers grow a large variety of fruits and vegetables, including blueberries, cranberries, peaches, asparagus, bell peppers, and the famous New Jersey tomatoes. Greenhouse products, dairy products, and fruits account for the vast majority of the state’s total farm income.
The vast majority of timberland in New Jersey is privately owned, and the state has a small but vibrant forestry sector. Likewise, fishing constitutes a small but significant component of the state’s economy. Based in Cape May and other ports along the Jersey Shore, the sector lands a great variety of seafood (notably shellfish) annually. The state has been actively promoting aquaculture since the mid-1990s.
The state was once renowned for its mineral deposits, notably iron ores, and New Jersey provided much of the iron used to make artillery during the American Revolution. Now, nearly all raw materials and fossil fuels must be imported; sand and stone are the most important minerals exploited. New Jersey’s major industries include the production of chemicals and the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment, textiles, food, toys, sporting goods, and stone, glass, and clay products. About half of the state’s electricity is generated by thermal plants and the other half at nuclear facilities, with a tiny proportion from other sources.
New Jersey has a large and prestigious research sector, with one of the country’s highest numbers of engineers and scientists per capita. The great inventor Thomas Alva Edison established a research laboratory in Menlo Park in 1876. There he created the incandescent lamp and the phonograph and pioneered motion-picture technology. Today the landscape of the central part of the state is replete with the research facilities of international repute that have succeeded Edison’s pioneering laboratory.
Resorts and tourism are a significant part of New Jersey’s economy, especially in the south, where a bad year at the Shore hurts the economic well-being of the entire region. Gambling has contributed greatly to the service sector since the mid-1970s, when residents of New Jersey approved a constitutional amendment to permit gambling casinos at Atlantic City.
New Jersey has one of the country’s highest rates of union membership among employed workers. In absolute terms it has one of the highest numbers of union members, despite the state’s small size. This high participation level reflects the degree of New Jersey’s industrialization and organized labour’s long history in the state. Among the many significant labour strikes have been those of silk workers in Paterson in 1913 and of woolen-mill workers in Passaic in 1926.
New Jersey’s greatest source of tax revenue is individual and corporate income taxes, followed closely by various sales taxes. Licenses and property taxes provide smaller portions of revenue.
Since colonial days, when New Jersey’s roads first linked Philadelphia and New York City, transportation has been the lifeblood of the state’s economy, and its role in New Jersey can best be appreciated in the Newark area. There, a dozen lanes of the New Jersey Turnpike converge with the main line of Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation), Newark Liberty International Airport, Port Newark, and the Elizabeth–Port Authority Marine Terminal to provide one of the world’s most dynamic transportation landscapes.
The economy of northern New Jersey is bound tightly to that of New York City, and the commercial traffic between the two states is the country’s heaviest. In 1921 the states of New York and New Jersey formed the Port of New York Authority, now called the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey—a bistate commission empowered to finance and operate transportation facilities in the New York metropolitan area. The Port Authority, as it is known, is a public corporation operating Newark and Teterboro airports in New Jersey and La Guardia and Kennedy airports in New York, as well as the Lincoln and Holland tunnels, three bridges, huge piers, bus and rail lines, and truck terminals.
A similar but much smaller transit complex exists in the Camden area and links the South Jersey area with Philadelphia. Camden has a deepwater port on the Delaware River and high-speed transit to Philadelphia.
Even before World War II, New Jersey had one of the country’s finest road networks, and it subsequently built an extensive network of toll highways. The New Jersey Turnpike runs the length of the state from the George Washington Bridge in the northeast to the Delaware Memorial Bridge in the southwest. The Garden State Parkway stretches southward along the eastern side of the state from the New York state line nearly to Cape May, and the Atlantic City Expressway connects Atlantic City with the Camden area to the northwest.
New Jersey has had three constitutions. The current constitution dates from 1947 and has been amended many times. New Jersey governors serve terms of four years, and they are permitted reelection to a second term. The governor appoints, with the advice and consent of the Senate (one of the state legislature’s two chambers; the lower house is called the General Assembly), virtually all top state officers and members of state boards, state authorities, and the judiciary; the governor also has the authority to supersede county prosecutors. By virtue of having broad executive and administrative powers, a vast patronage network, and unequaled access to the press, radio, and television, the governor of New Jersey is a relatively strong chief executive. A two-thirds majority of both legislative houses is necessary to override a gubernatorial veto.
In 1966, in response to a U.S. Supreme Court decision, the New Jersey legislature adopted the “one man, one vote” principle. Voters in each of the state’s 40 districts choose one senator and two General Assembly members. Assembly members serve two-year terms. The Senate operates on a “2-4-4” cycle; senators are elected to four-year terms, except at the beginning of a decade, when they serve a two-year term. This allows for new elections as soon as possible after the reapportionment that occurs following the decennial census.
New Jersey’s 21 counties are administered by boards of freeholders elected countywide. The boards vary from three to nine members, depending on the size of the county. In addition to these elected officials, local governments are supplemented by service commissions, boards, and authorities, many of which enjoy wide independence and even autonomy. Attempts to merge municipalities, reduce the number of school districts by consolidation, or strengthen county government have not been successful; local power and prerogatives are important determinants in New Jersey politics.
Although there have been signs that civic bossism is declining, New Jersey’s political system was long dominated by strong county leaders who drew their power from the patronage and contracts that they dispensed through control of the municipal courthouse or city hall. The most notorious of those bosses was Frank Hague, who ruled Jersey City and Hudson county from 1917 to 1947. For three decades Hague dominated the Democratic Party and heavily influenced the Republicans. His philosophy of government was best summed up in his famous reply to those who told him an order he gave was against the law: “I am the law.”
Public elementary and secondary schools in New Jersey are largely locally funded and controlled. There was no state university until 1946, when New Jersey took over full responsibility for Rutgers. Rutgers, which began as Queen’s College in 1766, is today composed of three campuses (New Brunswick [main campus], Newark, and Camden) and a wide variety of colleges and programs. Princeton University (formerly the College of New Jersey; 1746), an Ivy League school, is one of the country’s most prestigious private institutions. Princeton Theological Seminary and the Institute for Advanced Study are also located in Princeton. Other institutions of higher learning include the College of New Jersey (public; 1855), in Trenton; Seton Hall University (Roman Catholic; 1856), in South Orange; and Stevens Institute of Technology (private; 1870), in Hoboken.
Most of the services available to the citizens of New Jersey come from the state, although most of the major counties maintain institutions of one kind or another, and much funding comes through federal agencies.
New Jersey long has been well served by the cultural amenities of New York City and Philadelphia, and therefore the state lagged somewhat in developing its own. New Jersey helped correct that situation with the 1968 opening, in Holmdel, of the Garden State (now PNC Bank) Arts Center. The New Jersey Performing Arts Center (opened 1997), in downtown Newark, holds performances by the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra. These facilities have proved to be a success, and their programming of music, drama, and dance has been well received.
New Jersey has been the home and inspiration for a large number of popular musicians. Among those most strongly associated with the state have been Bruce Springsteen, who grew up in Freehold but whose early music was indelibly linked to the Jersey Shore, and Hoboken native Frank Sinatra, who was discovered by bandleader Harry James while singing at a New Jersey venue. Other notable performers from the state include Sarah Vaughan, Dionne Warwick, Whitney Houston, and the heavy metal band Bon Jovi.
There are several summer theatres in New Jersey, most of them located near vacation areas. The McCarter Theatre Center, on the Princeton University campus, is open throughout the year and presents high-quality plays, music, and dance performances. Theatrical events and concerts also take place at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford. Best known as a sports venue, however, the Meadowlands is home to professional athletic teams of both New York and New Jersey. Among the teams that play there are the Jets and the Giants (gridiron football) and the Red Bulls (football [soccer]). The complex includes a horse-racing track where the Hambletonian Stake is run annually. The Devils (ice hockey) play at the Prudential Center in Newark; that venue also hosts other sports teams (professional and amateur), as well as entertainment events.
New Jersey has dozens of museums, many of them operated in conjunction with historic sites or buildings. The New Jersey State Museum, which includes a planetarium, is located in the state capitol complex in Trenton. Rutgers University’s Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum (formerly the Rutgers University Art Gallery), one of the country’s largest university art museums, houses important collections of Russian and Soviet art and 19th- and 20th-century French prints. The Newark Museum and the Princeton University Art Museum are among other well-known institutions.
New Jersey’s rich traditions are manifested in such historic homes and sites as the Rockingham State Historic Site, Washington’s winter headquarters near Princeton, where he wrote his farewell address to the Continental Army; Morven Museum and Garden (1755), in Princeton, located in the former governor’s mansion and onetime home of Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence; the restored 18th- and 19th-century colonial villages of Batsto and Allaire; and the Camden home of poet Walt Whitman. These and other historic sites attract thousands of tourists each year. New Jersey also operates a system of more than 35 state parks, about a dozen forests, several national recreation areas, some 40 natural areas, and several state marinas. Washington Crossing State Park is located in Trenton. Great Falls State Park, in Paterson, features 77-foot- (23-metre-) high falls and restored historic mill buildings and raceways.
Before the Europeans arrived, the Delaware (or Lenni Lenape) Indians had long occupied the region. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to reach New Jersey. Almost a century passed before colonization began with the arrival in 1609 of the English navigator Henry Hudson, who sent a party to explore Sandy Hook Bay. The first permanent European settlement was established by the Dutch at Bergen (now Jersey City) in 1660. The colony was brought under English rule in 1664, although for the next nine years the Dutch disputed that claim. In 1676 the province was divided into East and West Jersey, the former going to Sir George Carteret and the latter to a group of Friends (Quakers). The division continued until 1702, when the entire province reverted to the crown.
Unlike other colonists, who suffered from the harshness of English rule, the early Jerseyans were of such an independent nature that it was the royal governors who did much of the suffering. Until 1738 a single governor ruled New Jersey and New York. When Lewis Morris took office as the first governor of New Jersey after the separation, one member of the Assembly advised his colleagues on how governors should be treated: “Let us keep the doges poore [i.e., by paying governors a low salary] and wee’ll make them do as we please.”
Considerable division occurred within the state over the American Revolution, and Tory activity was heavy. The state was the site of more than 100 battles, earning it the nickname Crossroads of the Revolution. The most significant of these took place on Dec. 26, 1776, when Gen. George Washington and his hungry, ragged troops crossed the Delaware River from Pennsylvania in Durham boats (shallow-draft freight vessels), surprised a garrison of German mercenaries in Trenton, and captured the city. A week later, Washington won another vital battle at Princeton, routing the British forces under Col. Charles Mawhood. The victories breathed new life into the Revolution, and an army of colonials near despair was transformed into an effective fighting force. During the war Long Pond Ironworks and Batsto Iron Works (both founded 1766) supplied munitions to American troops. In 1776 New Jersey adopted its first constitution, which granted suffrage to women (although the legislature revoked this right in 1807). In 1787 it became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution. Trenton, which had served briefly as the national capital in 1784, was made the state capital in 1790. In its early years of statehood, New Jersey concentrated on rebuilding its economy from the damage done during the war.
Between the Revolutionary and Civil wars, New Jersey underwent tremendous industrial development, largely abetted by the construction of canals and, later, railroads. The railroads, in particular the Camden and Amboy line (a forerunner of present-day Conrail), played a crucial role in the state’s political life, dominating and controlling legislators and governors during the “robber baron” era of industrial expansion in the 19th century. Accommodating tax laws of that era gave New Jersey the epithet Mother of Trusts—half of the country’s largest corporations made their headquarters in the state by the early 1900s. Public dissatisfaction with the power of the trusts and public utilities reached a high point at the time of the election of Gov. Woodrow Wilson (1911–13), who signed legislation providing for tighter regulation of corporations (later repealed). Economic growth continued during and after World Wars I and II, but the growing decay of the cities continued to be largely overlooked amid general prosperity throughout the 20th century.
Politically, New Jersey is often a swing state in national elections. It historically tended to lean Republican, but, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, voters more decidedly supported the Democrats, who have since frequently controlled the state legislature. The governorship has tended to alternate between Republican and Democrat. In 1993 Republican Christine Todd Whitman became the first female governor of New Jersey.
A master plan for the state’s development, first adopted in 1992 and subsequently updated, aimed to direct growth toward existing infrastructure. The goal was to benefit existing urban and older suburban areas and to protect the state’s natural resources. The state also committed to the acquisition of open space and the reduction of suburban sprawl and its concomitant difficulties for commuters. Simultaneously, there was a rise of “edge cities” (suburban areas that contain all or most of the functions once found only in an urban context). As New Jersey moves through its fourth century of history, it continues to fulfill its potential as a diverse and richly gifted state.